Latest Update 27 September 2011
To assist states to undertake a systematic review of their hydrographic programmes and to identify clearly the major deficiencies in survey coverage, maritime activities are considered within three groupings:
The categorisation in the reports is
underpinned by detailed national assessment using
criteria, the zones of confidence
(CATZOC) defined in
S-57, or some
other systematic classification of source data.
Of the area deficiencies identified in the first edition, the following remain extant:
Mariners continue to report concern over the large areas of unsurveyed waters which are delineated on charts of the Persian Gulf.
The IMO has high-lighted concerns reported from the following areas:
The advent of deeper draught shipping has increased the urgency of national programmes to review and upgrade coverage which predates the deployment of sidescan sonar and multi-beam echo sounder (MBES). The increasing tendency of cruise liners to seek new routes, anchorages, and port calls, has high-lighted the need for more rigorous survey of areas which were originally explored in the nineteenth century. This is a major challenge for developing hydrographic services in the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and W Pacific areas. It also requires the continued commitment of those states which invest in survey programmes in the polar regions. New techniques such as LIDAR may assist progress in some sea areas, but they are expensive to deploy. Regional project co-ordination and cost-sharing should be fully exploited.
Many countries, both with long-established and with developing hydrographic capabilities, are responsible for safe access to ports in areas where the seabed is unstable. Routine re-survey programmes are essential in such areas. There is a real need for those states with expertise in managing such programmes to share their experience.
Renewed attention needs to be given to the disproving of vigias and to the positioning of remote islands, especially adjacent to the maritime shipping routes in the Pacific and adjacent seas.
To date, the IHO has not taken cognisance of
hydrography on rivers and inland waterways. However, there is clear
evidence within the RHCs of need for guidance and sharing of information.
To this end, states with significant inland waterways have been included
in this edition.
Analysis of the Status of Charting
Although coverage of both paper and electronic charts has increased, in many cases there has not been a concomitant improvement in the source data from which they are derived. The appearance of deeper draught shipping has also exposed the inadequacy of navigational products in many areas. This is apparent, for example, in the assessment of large-scale cover in the states of the W Pacific and Oceania.
Metrication programmes are underway in many areas e.g. in the UK coverage of islands in the Caribbean, but this rarely indicates the availability of significant modern surveys. Some charts have been withdrawn because of lack of data to enable their update e.g. the UK coverage of Lake Victoria in Africa.
The widespread use of GPS, the advent of ECDIS
and the introduction of AIS, lends great urgency to efforts to identify
datum transfers and to re-publish charts on WGS 84 datum. This requires
very close liaison between HOs and national land survey authorities. This
is particularly important in some parts of Europe, the Caribbean, Africa,
and the Pacific Ocean.
An organisation for the collection and circulation of nautical information is the vital first phase of hydrographic capability which all coastal states should seek to attain. Indeed, it informs subsequent prioritisation of surveys, and it ensures that charts remain accurate. For these reasons a summary of MSI status has been introduced with this Third Edition.
Sea Areas A1, A2 and A3
The analysis of MSI provision is based on sea areas A1 to A3 as defined by IMO in resolution A801(19). Click here for the description of these areas.
Arrangements for communicating up to date information to chart-producing HOs in a timely manner remain deficient in many countries, especially in the Caribbean and Africa. The widespread lack of data on offshore installations is a matter of the greatest concern.
Practical steps are needed in many countries before the GMDSS can be considered to be fully implemented. In addition to the regions mentioned in the last paragraph, there are significant gaps in oceanic areas.
Co-ordination between different maritime agencies is poor in many developing countries, and is not helped by lack of awareness of hydrography within governments.
The top priority for IHO capacity building
effort must be to assist every coastal state to achieve the vital first
stage of hydrographic capacity, namely, the ability to collect, collate
and promulgate urgent navigational safety information in a timely manner.
This work is already underway in a number of the RHC areas through the
medium of expert visits and technical workshops.
Some specific reports from the C-55 data-base are available on the IHO web-site. There are also Data Input Questionnaire (English, French and Spanish) in Word format to enable states to submit updated information at any time.
The date of submission or latest update of information is shown in the heading of the Composite Report for each State and as a separate report "Update information". The IHB will use a Circular Letter to provide an annual reminder of the importance of update, and to encourage states to include update of C-55 in their hydrographic planning process. RHCs will also review the content of C-55 at each meeting.
The C-55 data-base will underpin IHO advice to the UN, IMO and other agencies. Some RHCs are already planning regional data-bases with more detailed layers of information. It is hoped that the systematic approach of C-55 will assist states with developing hydrographic services to put together a coherent national plan.
The data in C-55, together with the additional information provided by states on co-operation and requirements for assistance, will be used by the IHOCBC in the development of a prioritised action plan to implement measures to contribute to the safety of navigation and protection of the marine environment worldwide
|IHB - Monaco.|
Revised:janvier 17, 2013 .